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21st Century Teacher Preparation

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21st Century Teacher Preparation

TEACHERS in educational studies are said to be the torchbearers of education. One element that determines the success of any reform or policy implementation, democratization, and innovative efforts in education is the willingness of teachers to make changes. In addition, the quality of teachers is one of the determinants of the success of learning or student learning. Teacher education, including teacher capacity building activities, has a relationship with teaching quality (Creemer, 1994; Sean, 2002; Villega-Reimer, 2004; Hopkins, 2004, Hanushek & Kain, 2005; Pushpanadham, 2020: 3).

Therefore, every effort to improve the quality of education and realize access to quality education for all citizens of the nation cannot be separated from ensuring the following three things; competent teachers, high quality teaching, and students can access high quality learning (OECD, 2005: 9). In the world of education, global currents have a strong influence on educational policies, practices and institutions. Education is faced with demands for flexibility and adaptation, for example, to meet the demands and opportunities of the world of work (Sholte, 2000; Cohen & Kennedy, 2000; Steger, 2001).

According to Barkatsas, Bertram (2016: 1), schools should ensure themselves to be able to equip students with skills and competencies that make them empowered in a world where changes occur constantly and cannot be avoided. Schools must meet current needs while anticipating future trends and challenges. Schools should apply a different learning paradigm. Teachers need to be equipped with new competencies and frameworks needed in 21st century learning (Tan, Liu, Low, 2017: 1).

Characteristics of a 21st century teacher

21st century learning is a teaching and learning process that prepares students to face 21st century life. For this reason, according to Barkatsas, Bertram (2016: 2), there are several skills needed in the 21st century, namely critical thinking, problem-solving skills, creative and innovative, collaboration and teamwork, leadership, cross-cultural understanding, communication skills. and utilize information, skilled in arithmetic and ICT, as well as independence in career and study. Benade (2017:1) adds, the characteristics of agility and adaptability, initiative and entrepreneurship, effective writing skills, curiosity, and imagination.

21st century teacher education is not technical training such as making lesson plans which tend to be technically administrative. However, efforts to build teachers into proactive problem solvers and strong researchers. Teachers, according to Tan, Liu, Low (2017:2), not only have good teaching knowledge and competence, but also have a strong commitment and passion for the profession and students.

The learning environment provides opportunities for students and teachers to actively conduct research and studies and utilize technology to link information sources in cross-disciplinary knowledge. This is intended to ensure that the presence of teachers in the future is always relevant and responsive to the times. According to Tan, Liu, Low (2017:4), teacher-educators develop themselves from aspirational teachers to become teachers self-directedactive collaborators, and actors of metacognitive reflection with advanced pedagogy.

21st century teacher education

To meet the needs of these students, 21st century teacher education–as stated by Pushpanadham (2020: 8)–must provide the necessary skills and knowledge, namely; First, pedagogy. These skills and knowledge can equip teachers to be inclusive, multicultural, and respect diversity. Techno-pedagogical skills and integration of techno-pedagogical skills with materials are intended to make teachers effective in carrying out tasks in class or culturally responsive pedagogical concepts, according to Benade (2017: 34), namely a pedagogical model that emphasizes creating a classroom atmosphere in a relationship of mutual respect, relevance and choice. personal, inclusive experiences in students’ perspectives and values, and develop self-confidence among students.

Second, the ability to adapt teaching plans and practices to meet the diverse and dynamic learning needs of students. Third, the ability to negotiate classes for mediation with education stakeholders in terms of materials, methodologies and values, as well as options. Fourth, research and studies are needed by teachers to gain new knowledge. Fifth, reflective, interpersonal skills to learn in a learning and research society are important for future teachers.

Teachers need to have a critical attitude, judge based on evidence/data, theoretical and professional dialogue in order to take part in innovation. According to Tan et al (2017: 6), the ability to reflect systematically, think, and make continuous improvement efforts is important to strengthen the ability of teachers so that they can present an effective teaching-learning process to students.

21st century teacher learning concept

There are four learning concepts that teachers need in the future in order to have global capabilities, namely, first, personalization of learning. Pedagogically the term is related to providing opportunities for individuals to follow interests and choices while still relating to the quality of relationships in the classroom, including teacher responsiveness to cultural identity, acknowledging diversity of abilities and knowledge, creating diverse learning environments, and developing assessment and input according to students.

The student’s personal life is closely related to retrieving and sharing relevant information and peer communication. Participants come and have the right to set a learning picture that they agree on (Benade, 2017: 33).

Second, authentic learning. Students are allowed to formulate problems that are clearly related to the real world or carry out projects in the community. For example, opening a vegetable stall and selling a product made by students (Benade, 2017: 36). Third, project-based, problem-based, and design-based approaches to learning. The idea behind this approach is cooperation, in which students gather to discuss and analyze a project.

They then divide themselves into small groups doing the project. Subsequently, they regrouped in large groups. Project and problem-based approaches provide students with real-life problems to solve which are often followed by study models including the process of making hypotheses, conducting research and reflection (Benade, 2017: 36).

Fourth, collaborative teaching. Collaborative teaching for teachers includes shared practice, sharing responsibilities, sharing workload, and developing motivation. For students, in teaching collaboration there is diversity and various sources of knowledge and support (Benade, 2017:39).

Another thing that needs attention in 21st century teacher education is assessment and innovation. In assessment, scholastically, students are ready to be tested. Related to innovation and creativity in teaching and learning, students are able to develop skills that can give birth to jobs in the era of disruption. According to Benade (2017: 37. 38), that is what is called a creative and innovative teacher in carrying out tasks. Wallahualam bissawab.


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